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tv   [untitled]    September 24, 2010 8:30pm-9:00pm EDT

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some of the. real life stories from. nineteen forty five don't you don't call. them out again this is all so you were triple the headlines. two russian cosmonauts and an american astronaut remain stuck on the international space station of a technical problem for events that is so you space from the. reports of thousands of cia trained i'm going assassins operation in pakistan raise concerns over wall street up and over the u.s. pulls out of the region and the control of the elite killing sales they will be leaving behind me. and a war was between the american and iranian president mahmoud ahmadinejad told the
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ground general assembly that most people in the world believe the united states was behind the nine eleven attacks despite them around the ring and president says his country is open to negotiations on its nuclear program as early as next month. as the headlines now also he's technology update show brings you the cutting edge of two more today and this time we explore new methods of saving the environment that's up next. hello and welcome to technology update the environment around us is one of staggering biological diversity somehow all held together into the big ten of our planet's ecosystem and while much of the natural world has been here for thousands of years we're just starting
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a one walk many of its secrets how exactly did all of this get here how do bio systems of all shapes and sizes interact and what's our influence on this process as humans what can we learn from our ecosystem to both help it and perhaps help ourselves these are questions as old as time now getting a fresh look in the twenty first century the institute of bio physics at the siberian division of the russian academy of sciences is well placed for a new perspectives surrounded by some of the earth's most unique and unadulterated ecology and applying the lessons of physics to biological research. the methods of mathematical modeling monitoring an experimental method of studying small isolated in care systems and then tells us scientists to assess the current trends prevalent in the bias. but we have evidence that any shifts in the ecosystem and not accidental
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a full under common law the law of preservation yet we can identify key fact is that influence any specific ecosystem and by manipulating them were able to control the makeup of the system one of the key areas for it by physicists researching the cycles has become a question ecosystems. as these scientists know well this kind of research means getting way they're taking today's fine tuned technology to the water to find out about the conditions in creatures prevailing beneath its surface you might not get your kicks standing the sea or lakes for tiny playing to but they tell us what's happening in our aquatic systems now what was yesterday and what tomorrow may hold this team is. up to video laser detection instruments to make this work easier as the laser illuminates the critters to be counted in specific depths in the water column i got the chance to tag along on one of the team's trips to a unique siberian salt lake from their base there they're taking measurements and collecting
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samples that might help us understand aquatic ecosystems worldwide. is situated in the russian republic of. three hundred sixty kilometers to the southwest of the institute in krasnoyarsk. we have now reached the needed level about fourteen minutes this is where oxygen is replaced by hydrogen sulfide only specific species of bacteria are able to leave under such conditions. basically as a compact of the ancient. during the first billion was no oxygen. and the water was saturated with carbon dioxide the hydrogen sulfide would we do the impact analysis for various trying to is the key and then apply the trends to the water habit to. do similar lakes elsewhere but the ocean was.
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never this saw is the underlying principles of trends of the same. not far from sharon how casias lake should net a smaller but perhaps even more peculiar body of water and another focus for the bio physicist study. salinity is as low as half that of ocean water that can reach double average oceanic salinity for that reason it's home to a very very simple spectrum of biological diversity a short in food chain with tiny crustaceans at the top it's also a merrill mcpeak lake meaning that while most lakes frequently undergo physical mixing of water layers should stay more or less suspended in place leaving oxygen depleted depths like we've witnessed below the surface of. the make up of each of the lakes fine layers the crescent team developed their own patented hydraulic
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sampler with the ability to collect specimens at intervals of just five centimeters . this strange contraption helped us to discover the thick. unit is unique in terms of the predominance and sheer numbers of purple sulfur bacteria. such a massive population of these types of bacteria. can be attributed to specific conditions to help the species thrive. physics institutes base camp after a day on the lake we went inside the on site laboratory to make sense of what we pulled out from under water. we find in the multicolored layers sucked out of should net for more than just establishing down there. in the lake are almost like a tree a detailed record of this isolated ecosystem over time and when these guys started
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connecting the dots things get even more interesting. strong suit models help us do the retrospective analysis that is to assess the climatic conditions including precipitation during a given historical period. and also the perspective on when we envisage what will happen in case it gets wet or dry but this is what the salt lake study is all about what they're worth to find out exactly what's going on in our planet's vast ecosystem you need a lot of people to do a lot of trekking sometimes in virtually inaccessible regions thankfully we have the ability to get a bird's eye view. observing massive forest habitats like those covering the breadth of siberia often means exploiting aerial photography satellites are also being used to keep tabs on the big picture whether that's checking for fires illegal logging or just changes in
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natural biological patterns of course to get detailed information about what's growing or dying and why we still do much of our fact check on foot you start changes in our biosphere can be split into two cancer grease natural and unnatural natural ones that come with the shift of the seasons and these are the trends we have observed over large number of years it's crucial to know the overall amount of buying a result when that they growing old to creasing. distribution across the territory the status of crow pursue the data collected from these combine methods offer something like micro macro and telescopic versions of our forest ecological situation and the results can also be used on a different scale down the street at the forestry institute tree specialists have noticed a troubling trend. to worsening environmental situation in russia's forces including signing period we're witnessing a decline in reproductivity it's
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a problem that's facing all coniferous tree species found in siberia the first thing we've introduced and he meant it to tell you it's a combination of a kind. cicle selections techniques and innovative by sec knowledge twin able to mass reproduction of improved genome and we seek cells of genetically improved tree . them on a nutrition substrate and put them into a beach inside the ci the embryonic tissues start growing into using the formation of what's called a callous a massive undifferentiated cells this will be the breeding ground for the new cinematic embryo that is if we take the kalus transfer it into another and within four to five weeks we get out of this massive cells white embryos that you can see here in the petri dish this is when the vegetation stage
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begins we put these green embryo into another petri dish with a different substrate is a thing that's where the new generation of trees will grow and after three to four months of growth they are recognizable plants for example this is a genuine siberian launch you can plant it into soil any way you like. that's exactly what the forestry institute is doing starting their genetically selected plants out in a deforested spot they set aside in the crust narced region it's too soon to tell but they're hoping it's a model that can be expanded in applied across the wide reaches of siberia experimental methods of exploring large ecosystems our planet is a unique object there's no alternative to experiment with and it's only piece by piece that we get a scientific p.h.o. of the ecosystem presents unique tools to integrate various data into
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a single possible scientists are also modeling the human body as an ecosystem and like the planet we inhabit it can't always be subjected to risky experiments another group. out of the bio physics institute once to observe and test live animal organisms in a safe close setting starting with our constituent parts the key instrument homeostatic three m. . the. near this apparatus is ideal for the study of the various by chemical reactions of a human organ. the message we use fall somewhere between research in vitro in a test tube and in vivo when the focus on the organs performing inside the body. of the. three m. is an artificial homeostasis device for maintaining organ separated from their natural bio system or the role of the lungs is played by an oxygen aid regulating the flow of oxygen in carbon dioxide through the organ perfusion pumping organisms
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pushing the blood substitute through the isolated organ tubes running to the organ from the palm trees to take oxygen rich blood from the heart the tubes that bring the fluid back from the organ are like our veins instruments on both the arterial and greenish sections allow researchers to monitor the blood substitutes consistency and the functioning of the organ the machine also allows for additional solutions to be pumped into the system to alter the makeup of the fluid and she would desired result. to the professionally created and set the appropriate temperature and while it's working we can proceed to the operation if you don't mind assisting. her research is a typical lab or here we're most interested in testing the animals liver it's a mirror of the process first human organ donor only we won't be putting the liver on ice as is still common transplant practice homeostatic could be
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a genuine lifesaver if it could be incorporated into this process because it essentially tricks an organ into thinking it's in its natural bio system this liver will be. up to lie in the machine almost exactly as if it were still filtering it's only as fluid. being immortal the we extract the organic to study its physical and chemical capacity is the record so far has been five days the liver continued to perform its functions at virtually full tilt as long as it lives for at least twenty four hours it means we can study the organ as if it were inside the human body. is chosen here not simply because of the importance of liver transplants another area for interest in the study is pharmacology a field where despite organ is a focal point is a key link in the chain of our metabolisms and the work tasked with detoxing our systems deliver is always under scrutiny in pharmacological testing the homeostatic
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provides a closed proving ground to find out how the different substances impact the liver function changes for better or for worse in the organs performances can be observed in isolation since the machine holds other simulated body functions at a constant. then you know for course this is just the rats and there will definitely be more research and tests before the device can be used in medical practice still we've been able to gather data on the elimination rate for some of the substances and observe the metabolic activity. the lab rats someone usual sea creatures are also waiting in our attempts to learn more about our own bodies in fact the seas are the richest resource we have for harvesting bioluminescent organisms while many are tiny simple critters they're also bearers of precious photo proteins which could light the way an important medical research. is big it by one of the world's pharmaceutical giants they test millions of substances in the
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search for active ingredients to use in new medicines and so-called bioluminescent reporters make this process far easier fortunately they found a formidable partner for developing this part of their project also at the bio physics institute in krasnoyarsk. bio luminescence laboratory in krasnoyarsk is the largest of its kind in the world today. it was a lucky coincidence for both parties. that the. colleagues have kept up their end of the partnership by isolating and regenerating proteins they found in sea creatures from all over the world. exactly what's allowing the animals to illuminate the ocean they extract in focus on multiplying that protein. to then produce an essentially unlimited amount of the substance without having to go back for more trips having mastered this technique they pass
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it on to their clients and go back to what they do best in the waters for new bioluminescent animals with new proteins with new properties. new chemical compounds. in pharmaceuticals. and. they all need to be tested for the potential targets. expresses the bioluminescent protein. allow for a preliminary screening of potential chemical compounds. perspective. only ten to twenty will be picked for further analysis. there's. a significantly speed up the.
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techniques to test some one thousand five hundred similar. which means that within less than a minute or so you test one thousand five hundred new chemical compounds. technically advanced stages. under control of just. such. cases diagnostics. says have the. method. disease or other substance in the patient's blood radioactive isotopes combined with body didn't do a sample of the patients. take the place of the released isotopes these can be measured and are equal to the level of the originally present in the sample. new method uses i believe a bioluminescent photo protein in place of the radio isotopes harvested from the marine hydroid. in the addition of calcium ions to light for measuring the presence
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of a given. protein is every bit as accurate but will be safe. we've been able to modify the spectrum of. one protein mutant. and another green which. we can conduct. by separating the spectrum with ordinary optical filters. to substances for example to hormones in. contemporary methods of molecular biology. to cultivate an almost unlimited amount of this photo protein in. the pursuit. no
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areas left in biotechnology that don't employ the potential of. markers for. any field. can do without bioluminescence that could mean taking these markers beyond the borders of medical testing in pharmacology to service a smoke signal for virtually any effect we wish testing our air for pollutants the soil for which nutrients for our children. toys for toxins pick the right protein and wait for the light much of the time we're using the natural properties of biological systems to our advantage without even thinking about it like when microbes in the soil help break down our trash but that's only effective for refuse we know it's biodegradable we're piling up ever more plastic it will pollute our planet for centuries consumption of plastics continues to skyrocket with estimated global use up to one hundred million tonnes each year meanwhile recycling rates remain low and the effectiveness of plastic recycling is highly debatable but
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innovations in bio plastics and a laboratory of kemah water traffic biosynthesis in krasnoyarsk might help us break the habit but. they're interesting and promising objects to by technological study the chemical reaction of oxidising hydrogen produces a wide range of various compounds the line includes anything from the crystal lines then the pastika polymers the two rubbery material such as a lot of them is we can adjust and customize their characteristics for a specific industry for a specific product it's even possible to set the exact time of bio degradation which is a crucial achievement it's difficult to reach that is proof we can. practice is been accumulated over the last two decades during which. the field of bio plastics research. biopolymers that are the basis for any end product the first step is to facilitate the growth of more hydrogen oxidising bacteria then the task
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is to separate the polymer from the bacteria and test its purity. approach it is unique in that we're able to use almost any industrial sources of language and like so cooled thing gas synthetic gas extracted during the processing of brown coal natural gas hydrolyzed lignin and even in the. bacteria how much is the betsy yields results with the level of up to ninety percent. with that high polymer harvested from the bacterial mix scientists continue the careful process of refining it it's a recurring cycle of reduction in precipitation requiring a lot of hands on and min hours and the. method makes sense in limited quantities for testing properties or small scale prototypes but the scale of potential applications for bioplastics is far bigger requiring production of an altogether
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more ambitious order. traffic biosynthesis team has stepped up their game setting up the first ever production facility for biopolymers in russia. the pilot production house where the conservation stage begin the next stage is to increase the quantity of the active substance that happens here and this a cool shake. material is transferred via sterile. into the first fermentation tank. then channeled into this container and it's here that the via polymer growing in the cell with. the material is fed into a vacuum. which is responsible for the biomass concentration. that is now ready for the actual production of the planet it can be done in that
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big extraction vessel all in this one we mix the by a mouse with chemical agents and after a few operations we get the result by a polymer we trade marketed as be a class to town with not only do they have a product the lab also has its rising star. she's a vital role for bio plastics in the twenty first century in dismay breakthroughs in applying bua plus to time to products in the field of medicine work that got her recognized with the presidential young scientists award in the holes of the kremlin in february of two thousand and ten with a boost from the national attention to her work is right back in the lab she essentially conducts subsidiary of the bio plastics project with a focus on medical applications it may not be getting rid of all those water bottles but the impact is just as important like our planet poisoned by piles of trash the human organism is incredibly sensitive to the influence of harmful
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substances making life saving advances in medical treatment we have to find benign ways to operate in medicate inside the human body. can you make from this polymer is at the top of the middlemost model there are lots of potential products and biomedicine we study this material for various applications and surgery it could be helpful for example as a retention see a chair or as a particular implants that are used to treat ruptures it is an ideal material for stents implanted to restore bile passages or bone tissue we can regulate the size of the implants make it bigger or smaller we can also tailor their geometry to fit specific requirements we can adjust their density and per our city hammock and another promising field is drug delivery and controlled release here also size and shape could vary here you can see a macro implant carrying the drug but it could be micro and nano particles that will do. over the substance to its destination we've made it to clinical trials for
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to killer and. and tubular stands for passages and initial tests are under way. and the rest of the others are still in various stages of development doctors are constantly faced with tradeoffs between fixing the system problems and risking new ones the shining prospect of biomedical products like these points to maybe one where the conflict is minimized by using instruments that interact naturally with our bio systems. we have good potential our material is on par with similar products developed in the west and some aspects even better there are vast prospects for use in biomedicine. we will be able to reconstruct various types of tissue and organs it will be ideal for tissue engineering that is the reconstruction of something that's been lost. theoretically we think it would be possible to use our material to synthesize a whole organ and give it to those who need it. shuts goes biomedicine
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focus complement each other quite well forming a complete technological cycle from the idea to a concrete implementation with respectable production capacity because researchers have already extended offers of ideas expertise and even their patented biopolymers to colleagues in russia and abroad who are on the same track it's a model that's ready to be picked up an expanded applied across the broader spectrum of fields where our planet needs us to switch from petroleum based polluting plastic to the something from nothing eco friendly future of bio plastic . we inhabit demands this attitude of given take technology we've developed is help us find more of use in the world that surrounds us and if we're savvy enough it's also helping us get the right things back. so it was. from the tiniest micro biological systems the problems of our
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global ecology are all under the scope of today's top scientists and with the assistance of innovative new equipment we have more than ever information about our planet right at our fingertips that's all for this show join us for more next month on technology update until then enjoy the ride. in india auntie's available in the grand central shirts and the taj mahal. president bush what frizzled beatrice will. go to gone home hutto synergise the cement hotel. motel closed the meridian the lead up to judge the hotel's church in new delhi hotel. babyhood turns clearing collection among the clothes of the maidens hotel's pagosa louis don't notice and
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shift it was promised to taper cush promise.
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